UNESCO-NIE Centre for Arts Research in Education (CARE)

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Name of Author: 
Tsoi, Raymond Mun Fie
Institute: 
Thesis (Ph.D.) National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University
Supervisor: 
Goh, Ngoh Khang
Year of completion: 
2007
Country: 
Singapore
Country of Research Data: 
Singapore
Language: 
English
Abstract: 

This study aimed to develop a pedagogic model, the TSOI© hybrid learning model to address the need for a more meaningful and feasible pedagogic structure in multimedia design. The TSOI© hybrid learning model represents learning as a cognitive process in a cycle of four phases: Translating, Sculpting, Operationalizing, and Integrating. This model was intended to address both concept learning and learning style inclinations. As such, a multimedia learning package for learning of the mole concept, which has as its pedagogic model the TSOI© hybrid learning model was developed and used for the research study. This study also investigated the effects of using a multimedia learning package for learning of the mole concept, which has as its pedagogic model the TSOI© hybrid learning model in terms of achievement, learning styles, and attitudes. Three instruments, namely, the Mole Concept Achievement (MCA) Test for Chemistry, the Attitudes towards Multimedia Instruction (AMI) Inventory, and the Learning Style Inventory (LSI) were administered to all the four groups (CSI, CS2, SC4 and JC1) during the research study. The multimedia learning package developed consisted of three e-learning stoichiometry modules on simple stoichiometry, molar volume and molar mass, and limiting reactant. The study found a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest achievement means at the .05 level for each of the four groups. This implied that the multimedia learning package for learning of the mole concept, which has as its pedagogic model the TSOI© hybrid learning model was effective in promoting the conceptual understanding of mole concept. For each of the four groups, the difference among the three e-learning stoichiometry modules in posttest achievement mean was not statistically significant at the .05 level. This implied that each of the three e-learning stoichiometry modules on simple stoichiometry, molar volume and molar mass, and limiting reactant was just as effective in promoting the conceptual understanding of mole concept. This also indicated that the multimedia learning package for learning of the mole concept was consistently designed in accordance with the pedagogical framework of the TSOI© hybrid learning model as its pedagogic model. As such, this indicated that a significant contribution of the TSOI© hybrid learning model as the design framework for designing multimedia learning materials on the learning of mole concept was highly probable in addition to other important contributing factors such as the suitable multimedia learning design principles applied, the appropriate analogies, the relevant chemistry examples and the meaningful exercises used. This also meant that the sum of parts (four phases) to form the whole entity (TSOI© hybrid learning model) was essential and that no one phase should be left out during the process of learning. As such, it was likely that the four phases of the TSOI© hybrid learning model together as a whole entity also had a positive overall effect on the conceptual learning of mole concept. The study found no statistically significant difference when the comparison was made between preferred learning styles (Kolb learning styles) in achievement (posttest scores) at the .05 level for each of the four groups. This implied that using the multimedia learning package for learning of the mole concept, which has as its pedagogic model the TSOI© hybrid learning model could accommodate any of the four learning styles (divergers, assimilators, convergers, and accommodators) when learning from the e-learning stoichiometry modules on simple stoichiometry, molar volume and molar mass, and limiting reactant. The study revealed no statistically significant difference at the .05 level when the comparison was intended between preferred learning styles (Kolb learning styles) in learner's attitude towards multimedia instruction for each of the four groups. Using the multimedia learning package for learning of the mole concept, which has as its pedagogic model the TSOI© hybrid learning model would not affect learner's attitude towards multimedia instruction be it positively or negatively with any of the four learning styles. However, convergers ranked consistently higher in positive attitudes for all the four groups. This could be due to the provision of a learning environment that was consistent with the learners' learning style as convergers thereby generating more positive attitudes. Generally, the learners' attitudes towards multimedia instruction for all the four groups were found to be positive. Thus, it is reasonable to infer that the TSOI© hybrid learning model can be used as the pedagogic model for multimedia design in chemistry and chemical education to develop a multimedia learning package to focus on conceptual understanding as well as to address learning style inclinations. Implications for practice and limitations of study were discussed and recommendations for future studies were made. Conclusions were also presented.

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